Assessing Diagnostic Accuracy of Serum Holotranscobalamin (Energetic-B12) in Comparability with Different Markers of Vitamin B12 Deficiency

 

  • About 15-40% India is Vitamin B12 poor (generally identified by whole Vitamin B12) however, as solely holoTC (lively kind) is taken up by physique cells, thus measuring holoTC is extra reflective of Vitamin B12 standing than the previous. We aimed to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of serum holoTC in comparison with whole Vitamin B12 and whole Homocysteine (HCY) as indicator of serum Vitamin B12 standing. 217 human topics (99 males and 118 females) starting from 17 to 83 years had been divided into Vitamin B12 poor (n = 70), borderline (n = 100) and sufficient teams (n = 47) who had been further assessed for markers of Vitamin B12 deficiency-holoTC, HCY, Imply Corpuscular Quantity (MCV), Folate, heamoglobin and creatinine.

 

  • Samples had been analysed utilizing Siemens Advia Centaur Xpi. Complete Vitamin B12 poor group had – 84.3% holoTC poor; 15.7% holoTC ample; 72.9% with elevated HCY; 27.1% with regular HCY; 11.4% with megaloblastic anaemia. Borderline group had – 34% holoTC poor; 28% elevated HCY.

 

  • A robust optimistic correlation was discovered between Complete Vitamin B12 and holoTC (r = 0.754, p = <0.001) however robust adverse correlation existed between holoTC and HCY (r = – 0.471, p = <0.001). Concordance between Complete Vit B12 and HCY (Kappa index = 0.51, p < 0.001); between holoTC and HCY (Kappa index = 0.52, p = <0.001) had been statically vital however the latter had a greater sensitivity and specificity.

         DKK-1 (HEK293-expressed), Human | Human DKK-1 ELISA package

  • Additionally, statically vital affiliation exists between Complete Vitamin B12 and holoTC with HCY (p = <0.001). Due to this fact, it’s ascertained that Energetic Vitamin B12 assay is a better check and will be thought-about as an early marker of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Key phrases: Energetic vitamin B12; Holotranscobalamin (holoTC); Homocystine (HCY); Vitamin B12; Vitamin B12 deficiency.

 

 

Dkk-1

GT30000 50 ug
EUR 526.00

DKK-1 (HEK293-expressed), Human

HY-P7155A 50ug
EUR 843.00

DKK-1 ELISA KIT|Human

EF000090 96 Tests
EUR 689.00

Human DKK-1 ELISA kit

LF-EK50797 1×96T
EUR 648.00

Recombinant Human DKK-1 Protein

PROTO94907-3 10ug
EUR 317.00

Dkk-1 Polyclonal Antibody

ABP53293-003ml 0.03ml
EUR 158.00
  • Immunogen information: Synthesized peptide derived from the C-terminal region of human Dkk-1
  • Applications tips:

Dkk-1 Polyclonal Antibody

ABP53293-01ml 0.1ml
EUR 289.00
  • Immunogen information: Synthesized peptide derived from the C-terminal region of human Dkk-1
  • Applications tips:

Dkk-1 Polyclonal Antibody

ABP53293-02ml 0.2ml
EUR 414.00
  • Immunogen information: Synthesized peptide derived from the C-terminal region of human Dkk-1
  • Applications tips:

Dkk-1 Polyclonal Antibody

41928-100ul 100ul
EUR 252.00

Dkk-1 Polyclonal Antibody

41928-50ul 50ul
EUR 187.00

Dkk-1 Polyclonal Antibody

ES4292-100ul 100ul
EUR 279.00

Dkk-1 Polyclonal Antibody

ES4292-50ul 50ul
EUR 207.00

Anti-Dkk-1 antibody

STJ97257 200 µl
EUR 197.00

Anti-Dkk-1 antibody

STJ98000 100 µl
EUR 234.00

Human CellExp? DKK-1, Human Recombinant

7132-10
EUR 278.00

Human CellExp? DKK-1, Human Recombinant

7132-50
EUR 1132.00

Dkk-2

GT15222 100 ug
EUR 526.00

Human DKK-1 PicoKine ELISA Kit

EK0867 96 wells
EUR 425.00

ELISA kit for Human DKK-1

EK5390 96 tests
EUR 553.00

Dkk-1 Polyclonal Conjugated Antibody

C41928 100ul
EUR 397.00

DKK-1 (CHO-expressed), Mouse

HY-P7154 50ug
EUR 762.00

Recombinant Mouse Dkk-1 Protein

RP01062 5 μg
EUR 183.00

Dkk-3 antibody

22898-100ul 100ul
EUR 390.00

Human DKK-1 ELISA kit (4×96T)

LF-EK50798 4×96T
EUR 2201.00

DKK-3 ELISA KIT|Human

EF000091 96 Tests
EUR 689.00

Recombinant Human Dkk-3 Protein

RP00355 10 μg
EUR 164.00

ELISA kit for Rat DKK-1

EK5668 96 tests
EUR 553.00

Human DKK-1(Dickkopf-related protein 1) ELISA Kit

EH0113 96T
EUR 524.10
  • Detection range: 31.25-2000 pg/ml
  • Uniprot ID: O94907
  • Alias: DKK1/dickkopf(Xenopus laevis) homolog 1/dickkopf homolog 1(Xenopus laevis)/dickkopf related protein-1/Dickkopf-1/dickkopf-related protein 1/Dkk-1/DKK-1/SKdickkopf-1 like

Dkk-3 Polyclonal Antibody

ABP54542-003ml 0.03ml
EUR 158.00
  • Immunogen information: Synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human Dkk-3 at AA rangle: 80-160
  • Applications tips:

Dkk-3 Polyclonal Antibody

ABP54542-01ml 0.1ml
EUR 289.00
  • Immunogen information: Synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human Dkk-3 at AA rangle: 80-160
  • Applications tips:

Dkk-3 Polyclonal Antibody

ABP54542-02ml 0.2ml
EUR 414.00
  • Immunogen information: Synthesized peptide derived from the Internal region of human Dkk-3 at AA rangle: 80-160
  • Applications tips:

Dkk-3 Polyclonal Antibody

ES5541-100ul 100ul
EUR 279.00

Dkk-3 Polyclonal Antibody

ES5541-50ul 50ul
EUR 207.00

Anti-Dkk-3 antibody

STJ98001 100 µl
EUR 234.00

Anti-Dkk-3 antibody

STJ92720 200 µl
EUR 197.00

Human DKK-4 PicoKine ELISA Kit

EK0868 96 wells
EUR 455.00

Human DKK-3 PicoKine ELISA Kit

EK1323 96 wells
EUR 425.00

Recombinant Human Dkk-3/DKK3 Protein

RP00209 10 μg
EUR 155.00

Recombinant Dkk-1 Protein (Thr 32-His 266) [Fc]

VAng-1451Lsx-100g 100 µg
EUR 848.00

Recombinant Dkk-1 Protein (Thr 32-His 266) [Fc]

VAng-1451Lsx-1mg 1 mg
EUR 4724.00

Recombinant Dkk-1 Protein (Thr 32-His 266) [His]

VAng-1453Lsx-100g 100 µg
EUR 1013.00

Recombinant Dkk-1 Protein (Thr 32-His 266) [His]

VAng-1453Lsx-1mg 1 mg
EUR 4999.00

Recombinant Dkk-1 Protein (Thr 32-His 266) [Strep]

VAng-1454Lsx-1mg 1 mg
EUR 6374.00

Recombinant Dkk-1 Protein (Thr 32-His 266) [Strep]

VAng-1454Lsx-250g 250 µg
EUR 2470.00

Recombinant Dkk-1 Protein (Thr 32-His 266) [Strep]

VAng-1454Lsx-25g 25 µg
EUR 765.00

Recombinant Dkk-1 Protein (Thr 32-His 272) [His]

VAng-1455Lsx-500g 500 µg
EUR 4449.00

Recombinant Dkk-1 Protein (Thr 32-His 272) [His]

VAng-1455Lsx-50g 50 µg
EUR 1013.00

Recombinant Dkk-1 Protein (Thr 32-His 266) [Fc] [Avi]

VAng-1452Lsx-200g 200 µg
EUR 3844.00

Recombinant Dkk-1 Protein (Thr 32-His 266) [Fc] [Avi]

VAng-1452Lsx-25g 25 µg
EUR 1013.00

Human DKK-3(Dickkopf-related protein 3) ELISA Kit

EH0114 96T
EUR 567.60
  • Detection range: 62.5-4000 pg/ml
  • Uniprot ID: Q9UBP4
  • Alias: DKK-3/Dickkopf-3/Dkk3/REIC

Recombinant Dkk-3 Protein (Pro 23-Ile 349) [His]

VAng-1456Lsx-1mg 1 mg
EUR 5494.00

Recombinant Dkk-3 Protein (Pro 23-Ile 349) [His]

VAng-1456Lsx-50g 50 µg
EUR 848.00

Recombinant Dkk-3 Protein (Pro 23-Ile 350) [His]

VAng-1457Lsx-200g 200 µg
EUR 1123.00

Recombinant Dkk-3 Protein (Pro 23-Ile 350) [His]

VAng-1457Lsx-20g 20 µg
EUR 380.00

Hemokinin 1 (human)

B5318-1 1 mg
EUR 340.00

Haptoglobin, (Phenotype 1-1) Human Plasma

7536-1
EUR 321.00

Endothelin-1 (1-15), amide, human

A1111-1 1 mg
EUR 722.00

Recombinant Human Dickkopf-Related Protein 2/DKK-2 (N-Fc, C-6His)

CC49-10ug 10ug
EUR 156.00

Recombinant Human Dickkopf-Related Protein 2/DKK-2 (N-Fc, C-6His)

CC49-1mg 1mg
EUR 2283.00

Recombinant Human Dickkopf-Related Protein 2/DKK-2 (N-Fc, C-6His)

CC49-500ug 500ug
EUR 1613.00

Recombinant Human Dickkopf-Related Protein 2/DKK-2 (N-Fc, C-6His)

CC49-50ug 50ug
EUR 369.00

BNP (1-32), human

A1105-1 1 mg
EUR 177.00

IGF-1, human recombinant

P1016-.1 100 µg
EUR 763.00

Neuregulin/Heregulin-1? (NRG-1?/HRG-1?), human recombinant protein

P1054-1 1 mg
EUR 3947.00

IL1RL1 Human, Interleukin-1 Receptor Like-1 Human Recombinant Protein, Sf9

PROTQ01638-1 Regular: 10ug
EUR 317.00

MMP-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Human Recombinant Protein

PROTP03956-1 Regular: 20ug
EUR 317.00

PSG1 Human, Pregnancy Specific Beta-1-Glycoprotein 1 Human Recombinant Protein, Sf9

PROTP11464-1 Regular: 10ug
EUR 317.00

Amyloid ?-Peptide (1-42) (human)

B6057-.1 100 ug
EUR 276.00

Parathyroid hormone (1-34) (human)

A1129-1 1 mg
EUR 166.00

Recombinant Human Gremlin-1 Protein

PROTO60565-1 50ug
EUR 317.00

ORM1 Orosomucoid 1 Human protein

PROTP02763-1 Regular: 10ug
EUR 317.00

Recombinant Human Galectin-1 Protein

PROTP09382-1 50ug
EUR 317.00

Recombinant Human PECAM-1 Protein

PROTP16284-1 50ug
EUR 317.00

Recombinant Human ANG-1 Protein

PROTQ15389-1 20ug
EUR 317.00

ApoA-1, human recombinant protein

P1052-.1 100 µg
EUR 313.00

ApoA-1, human recombinant protein

P1052-1 1 mg
EUR 1553.00

WNT-1, human recombinant protein

P1068-1 1 mg
EUR 6940.00

(1-328) RAD51D (1-328 a.a.) Human Recombinant Protein

PROTO75771-1 Regular: 10ug
EUR 317.00

NXPH1 Human, Neurexophilin 1 Human Recombinant Protein, Sf9

PROTP58417-1 Regular: 10ug
EUR 317.00

Human Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) AssayMax ELISA Kit

EI2200-1 96 Well Plate
EUR 477.00

Falsely optimistic fourth technology ADVIA Centaur® HIV Antigen/Antibody Combo assay within the presence of autoimmune hepatitis sort I (AIH)

 

  • A 51-year-old lady was admitted to the hospital with abdominal ache, jaundice, and transaminitis. The affected person’s laboratory outcomes confirmed elevated liver enzymes, excessive antinuclear antibodies (ANA) titer, optimistic anti-smooth muscle antibody, and hypergammaglobulinemia.

 

  • Given danger components for HIV an infection, an ADVIA Centaur® HIV Antigen/Antibody Combo assay was carried out exhibiting a reactive pattern with a observe up HIV-1 nucleic acid test (NAT) proving to be adverse.

         Human CellExp? DKK-1, Human Recombinant

  • Following affirmation of autoimmune hepatitis sort I through a liver biopsy, steroids had been initiated and vital medical enchancment of signs in addition to decision in transaminitis had been famous.

 

  • Autoimmunity is the most certainly causative consider inducing a false optimistic reactive screening assay. You will need to acknowledge that cross-reactivity with autoimmune situations and HIV particular proteins is a possible concern for false reactive samples.

      Recombinant Dkk-1 Protein (Thr 32-His 266) [Fc] [Avi]

        Key phrases: ADIVA Centaur®; Autoimmune hepatitis; False optimistic HIV check; HIV antigen and antibody mixture check.
Goal: In our laboratory, 2.36% (6626/280765) samples obtained for insulin analysis have serum insulin concentrations increased than 300 mU/L, leading to curves exterior the linear vary within the insulin launch check (IRT). Accordingly, utilizing applicable dilution protocols to find out insulin focus precisely is important. Right here, we in contrast the effectiveness and financial system of 4 totally different options for diluting high-insulin serum in routine medical measurements.
Methodology: Residual serum samples with high-insulin concentrations starting from 200 to 300 mU/L had been collected in Peking Union Medical Faculty Hospital from August to November 2017. 4 totally different matrixes together with a Siemens original diluent, pure water, 0.9% NaCl, and low-insulin serum (labeled as A to D, respectively) were used to dilute the serum within the ratios of 1:2, 1:5, and 1:10.

anti- Integrin alpha-5 antibody

FNab04347 100µg
EUR 548.75
  • Recommended dilution: WB: 1:500-1:2000
  • Immunogen: integrin, alpha 5
  • Uniprot ID: P08648
  • Research Area: Stem Cells, Immunology, Cardiovascular, Cancer

Anti-Integrin alpha-5 antibody

PAab04347 100 ug
EUR 386.00

Anti-Integrin alpha 5/ITGA5 Antibody

A01911 100ug/vial
EUR 334.00

Anti-Integrin alpha 5/ITGA5 Antibody

PB9254 100ug/vial
EUR 294.00

Alpha V Beta 5 Integrin, Peptide Aptamer, Biotinylated

AP-301-B 1 mg Ask for price

Alpha V Beta 5 Integrin, Peptide Aptamer, unlabeled

AP-301-U 5 mg Ask for price

Integrin alpha-5 Antibody

abx234347-100ug 100 ug
EUR 509.00
  • Shipped within 5-12 working days.

Integrin alpha 5 Antibody

49269-100ul 100ul
EUR 333.00

Integrin alpha 5 Antibody

49269-50ul 50ul
EUR 239.00

Anti-Integrin alpha 5 Rabbit Monoclonal Antibody

M01911 100ug/vial
EUR 397.00

Alpha V Beta 5 Integrin, Peptide Aptamer, FITC labelled

AP-301-F 1 mg Ask for price

Human Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) Protein

20-abx067272
  • EUR 662.00
  • EUR 272.00
  • EUR 2040.00
  • EUR 787.00
  • EUR 481.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.

anti-Integrin beta 5

YF-PA12792 100 ug
EUR 403.00

anti-Integrin beta 5

YF-PA24023 50 ul
EUR 334.00

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

20-abx000873
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 592.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

abx026655-400ul 400 ul
EUR 523.00
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

abx026655-80l 80 µl
EUR 286.00
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

20-abx006811
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 592.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 314.00
  • 100 ul
  • 200 ul
  • 20 ul
  • 50 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

abx011678-100ul 100 ul
EUR 411.00
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) Antibody

20-abx101634
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1149.00
  • EUR 565.00
  • EUR 314.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) Antibody

20-abx101635
  • EUR 467.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1344.00
  • EUR 634.00
  • EUR 356.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

20-abx338742
  • EUR 411.00
  • EUR 1845.00
  • EUR 599.00
  • EUR 182.00
  • EUR 300.00
  • 100 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 20 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin alpha 5 (CD49e) Antibody

AF5200 200ul
EUR 304.00

Integrin alpha 5 Conjugated Antibody

C49269 100ul
EUR 397.00

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

20-abx323564
  • EUR 314.00
  • EUR 244.00
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

20-abx325454
  • EUR 314.00
  • EUR 244.00
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

20-abx327245
  • EUR 314.00
  • EUR 244.00
  • 100 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) Antibody

20-abx129339
  • EUR 425.00
  • EUR 133.00
  • EUR 1177.00
  • EUR 578.00
  • EUR 328.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10 ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 50 ug
  • Shipped within 5-7 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGA5) Antibody

20-abx113185
  • EUR 732.00
  • EUR 398.00
  • 150 ul
  • 50 ul
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) Antibody

20-abx179024
  • EUR 1678.00
  • EUR 773.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • Please enquire.

Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5) Antibody

20-abx172956
  • EUR 815.00
  • EUR 425.00
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • Please enquire.

Integrin alpha 5 (CD49e) Antibody

abx216264-100ug 100 ug
EUR 439.00
  • Shipped within 5-10 working days.

Integrin alpha 5 Rabbit mAb

A19069-100ul 100 ul
EUR 410.00

Integrin alpha 5 Rabbit mAb

A19069-200ul 200 ul
EUR 571.00

Integrin alpha 5 Rabbit mAb

A19069-20ul 20 ul
EUR 221.00

Integrin alpha 5 Rabbit mAb

A19069-50ul 50 ul
EUR 287.00

Recombinant Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5)

4-RPB287Bo01
  • EUR 556.96
  • EUR 252.00
  • EUR 1813.60
  • EUR 671.20
  • EUR 1242.40
  • EUR 436.00
  • EUR 4384.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: Q27977
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 61.6kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 5.8

Recombinant Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5)

4-RPB287Hu01
  • EUR 476.32
  • EUR 230.00
  • EUR 1511.20
  • EUR 570.40
  • EUR 1040.80
  • EUR 382.00
  • EUR 3628.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P08648
  • Buffer composition: 20mM Tris, 150mM NaCl, pH8.0, containing 1mM EDTA, 1mM DTT, 0.01% SKL, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 47.6kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 8.4

Recombinant Integrin Alpha 5 (ITGa5)

4-RPB287Mu01
  • EUR 476.32
  • EUR 230.00
  • EUR 1511.20
  • EUR 570.40
  • EUR 1040.80
  • EUR 382.00
  • EUR 3628.00
  • 100 ug
  • 10ug
  • 1 mg
  • 200 ug
  • 500 ug
  • 50ug
  • 5 mg
  • Uniprot ID: P11688
  • Buffer composition: PBS, pH 7.4, containing 0.01% SKL, 1mM DTT, 5% Trehalose and Proclin300.
  • Form: Freeze-dried powder
  • Predicted Molecular Mass (KD): 50.0kDa
  • Isoelectric Point: 8.7

Rabbit Anti-Human Alpha Defensin 5 (NP-5),antiserum #1

HDEFA51-S 100 ul
EUR 457.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ96613 200 µl
EUR 197.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ96825 200 µl
EUR 197.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ97273 200 µl
EUR 197.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ97283 200 µl
EUR 197.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ97284 200 µl
EUR 197.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ97285 200 µl
EUR 197.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ97657 200 µl
EUR 197.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ98181 100 µl
EUR 234.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ93727 200 µl
EUR 197.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ93728 200 µl
EUR 197.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ93729 200 µl
EUR 197.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ93730 200 µl
EUR 197.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ98510 100 µl
EUR 234.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ98511 100 µl
EUR 234.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ98709 200 µl
EUR 197.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ98737 200 µl
EUR 197.00

Anti-Integrin alpha antibody

STJ98984 200 µl
EUR 197.00

anti-Integrin alpha 6

YF-PA24004 50 ul
EUR 334.00

anti-Integrin alpha 1

YF-PA24011 50 ul
EUR 334.00

anti-Integrin alpha 6

YF-PA12761 50 ul
EUR 363.00
Outcomes: We discovered that the linear correlation coefficients of A to D had been increased than 0.9. The restoration charges of A to D had been 86.4%-104.0%, 73.2%-99.3%, 76.4%-101.3%, and 84.2%-99.7%, respectively. We conclude that using 0.9% NaCl, pure water, or low-insulin serum to dilute high-serum insulin (>300 mU/L) is possible and cost-effective.

Alpha V Beta 5 Integrin, Peptide Aptamer, FITC labelled

Conclusion: We suggest a dilution truthor of 1:5 on a Siemens ADVIA Centaur XP® instrument. The clinically reported vary was 0.5-1500 mU/L. For particular samples (>1500 mU/L), we beneficial utilizing low-insulin serum samples for dilution.
Key phrases: diluent; insulin; matrix; restoration.