Expression and identification of a novel spore wall protein in microsporidian Nosema bombycis
Microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular parasites causing significant disease in human beings and economically important animals.
Though a few spore wall proteins (SWPs) have now been indentified in these intriguing species, the information on SWPs remains too little to elucidate the spore wall formation mechanisms of microsporidia. It has been well described that numerous proteins with tandem repeats tend to be localized on the cell wall of fungi and parasites.
Previously, by scanning the proteins with tandem repeats in microsporidian Nosema bombycis, we obtained 83 candidate SWPs based on whether those proteins possess a signal peptide and/or transmembrane domain. Here, we further characterized a candidate protein (EOB13250) with three tandem repeats in the N-terminal region and a transmembrane domain in C-terminus of N.
bombycis. Sequence analysis showed that the tandem repeat domain of EOB13250 was species-specific for this parasite. RT-PCR indicated that the expression of the gene encoding this protein started on the fourth day post-infection. After cloned and expressed in E.
Molecular Interaction Between Butorphanol and κ-Opioid Receptor
coli, a polyclone antibody against the recombinant EOB13250 protein was prepared. Western-blotting demonstrated this protein exist in N. bombycis. Immunofluorescence analysis (IFA) and immunoelectron microscopy analysis (IEM) further provided evidence that EOB13250 was an endospore wall protein.
These results together suggested that EOB13250 was a novel spore wall protein of N. bombycis. This study provides a further enrichment of the number of identified spore wall proteins in microsporidia and advances our understanding of the spore wall formation mechanism in these obligate unicellular parasites.
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a widely disseminated, macrophage-tropic arterivirus that exhibits profound genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity.
The present study was conducted to determine the complete genome sequences of two novel Korean lineage 1 PRRSV-2 strains, KNU-1901 and KNU-1902, which were isolated from vaccinated pig farms experiencing unusually high morbidity and mortality.
Both isolates contained notable discontinuous 423-nucleotide deletions (DELs) within the genes encoding nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) and GP3 when compared with the prototype strain VR-2332. In particular, the nsp2 DEL viruses had unique quadripartite discontinuous DEL signatures (111-1-19-9) in nsp2; this is an expanded version of the tripartite 111-1-19 DEL previously identified in virulent lineage 1 PRRSV-2 strains.
Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both novel nsp2 DEL viruses belong to the Korean clade (KOR C) of lineage 1 isolates based on ORF5 but cluster with lineage KOR A strains based on the nsp2 or complete genome sequence. Recombination detection analysis suggested that both novel isolates are recombinants and may have evolved via natural inter-lineage recombination between circulating KOR A and KOR C strains.
Description: Staphylokinase Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 136 amino acids and having a molecular weight of 16kDa.;The Staphylokinase is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.
Description: TIAL1 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 398 amino acids (1-375 a.a) and having a molecular mass of 44.0kDa.TIAL1 is fused to a 24 amino acid His-tag at N-terminus & purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.
Description: LIN7B Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 230 amino acids (1-207 a.a.) and having a molecular mass of 25.3kDa.;LIN7B is fused to a 23 amino acid His-tag at N-terminus & purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.
Description: KIAA0513 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 424 amino acids (1-401 a.a) and having a molecular mass of 47.9kDa.;KIAA0513 is fused to a 23 amino acid His-tag at N-terminus & purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.
Description: Lysostaphin, an endopeptidase specific for the cell wall peptidoglycan of staphylococci, is an extremely potent anti-staphylococcal agent. Lysostaphin is used as a research and diagnostic tool. Because it lyses staphylococci efficiently, it is widely used when preparing staphylococcal DNA or other cellular components for genetic and biochemical studies and for the preparation of protoplasts for transformation. Preparation and analysis of bacterial DNA has become a powerful tool used by clinical and other microbiologists in epidemiological studies aimed at tracing sources of infection or bacterial contamination.;The Mw of lysostaphin is 26,921 (Recsei et al, PNAS 1987).
Description: Streptavidin Streptomyces Avidinii Recombinant produced in E.Coli. ;The molecular weight per tetramer is approximately 52kDa.
Interestingly, compared with the prototype VR-2332 virus, the novel nsp2 DEL variants were less efficient at promoting the expression of immune response genes in porcine alveolar macrophage culture. Taken together, we conclude that KNU-1901 and KNU-1902 are recently evolved recombinant variants of the virulent lineage 1 family that caused the regional severe PRRS outbreaks.